00:14: For grade seven, eight, and nine, do you need to use a textbook? Can you do more lab stuff? There are programs and there are ways of doing it where you wouldn’t use a textbook until you got to biology. Doing discovery orient stuff and doing more laboratories, you can do that all the way up to biology. The thing is, when they’re getting to seventh and eighth grade, they are developing the cognitive abilities to start reasoning through the science.

00:39: So it’s good to start developing that in some way. And usually the best way to do that is to sorta give them problems to work out. And so typically, you find such problems in textbooks. [chuckle] So that’s the value of a textbook at that point. It’s given them the more intricate things that they have to work out. So, in elementary, they’ll learn about how wind forms. In seventh or eighth grade, they would learn how the wind moves the air masses. And so for example, if you’ve ever noticed, it generally cools down when there’s a storm. That’s because storms are brought in by cold fronts. The cold front moves, and the warm front, pushes the warm front up. The warm air is carrying more humidity, so that cold front condenses that humidity and makes those big cumulus clouds, then eventually rain.

01:32: So by eighth grade, they can get to the point where they can actually observe the weather and predict whether a cold front moved in or when you have those long rainy days, where it just rains for two or three days in a row. That’s because a stationary front is there, when the wind isn’t moving the masses around. So the wind is the basic thing, but how the wind actually manipulates the weather is a more advanced thing, and you typically find that kind of stuff in books.

01:58: Now, it doesn’t have to be a textbook. So, for example, you can study weather by getting a book from the library about weather and how to read a weather map, for example. So when the guy on TV is showing you that map that nobody understands, [chuckle] you can actually read books about what that map means and use it to help predict weather. So it doesn’t have to be a textbook, but you gotta be a little more advanced in the thinking now because they’re at that level.